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Mythology[ edit ] Parasuramasurrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna the Hindu God of water to part the seas and reveal Kerala According to Tamil classic PurananuruChera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached.
According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senkuttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers.
He won the war against the Devasdriving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to Patala the netherworld to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala.
Pre-history of Kerala A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherrythus supporting the hypothesis.
They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni hermit or sage and ara dolmen. Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period.
The spice trade was mainly along the water routes blue. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana ; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.
A second Chera Kingdom c. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kingswho lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire.
In addition, Portuguese invasions in the 15th century caused two major religion Buddhism and Jainism to disappear from the land.
It is known that the Menons in the Malabar region of Kerala were originally strong believers of Jainism.
After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle. The Kochi ruler sued for peace with Anizham Thirunal and Malabar came under direct British rule until India became independent.
After Vasco Da Gama 's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode inthe Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.
However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi.
During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast.
Angelo Fort was built in by the Portuguese in Kannur. However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces; especially from naval attacks under the leadership Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkarswhich compelled them to seek a treaty.
Inthe Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam fort. Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace. The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Companywho during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochigained control of the trade.
Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in Jun 02, · [Rev. 6/2/ PM] CHAPTER - SCHOOL PROPERTY. CARE, MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF SCHOOL PROPERTY. NRS Management, control and custody of school property.. NRS Insurance; use of proceeds..
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