Along with the provision of food, sustaining livelihoods, enhancing nutrition and the ability to cope with rapid changes in the environment and marketplaces are equally important to millions of small farmers. Data science can help in many ways.
The objective of the study is not to consider if SBIR should exist or not—Congress has already decided affirmatively on this question. Rather, the NRC Committee conducting this study is charged with providing assessment-based findings to improve public understanding of the program as well as recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.
In addition to setting out the study objectives, this report defines key concepts, identifies potential metrics and data sources, and describes the range of methodological approaches being developed by the NRC to assess the SBIR program.
A Brief History of the SBIR Program In the s, the country's slow pace in commercializing new technologies—compared especially with the global manufacturing and marketing success of Japanese firms in autos, steel, and semiconductors—led to serious concern in the United States about the nation's ability to compete.
Although small businesses were beginning to be recognized by the lates as a potentially fruitful source of innovation, some in government remained wary of funding small firms focused on high-risk technologies with commercial promise.
The concept of early-stage financial support for high-risk technologies with commercial promise was first advanced by Roland Tibbetts at the National Science Foundation NSF.
As early asMr.
Tibbetts advocated that the NSF should increase the share of its funds going to small business. When NSF adopted this initiative, small firms were enthused and proceeded to lobby other agencies to follow NSF's lead. When there Business research papers business opportunity no immediate response to these efforts, small businesses took their case to Congress and higher levels of the Executive branch.
The conference's recommendation to proceed with a program for small business innovation research was grounded in: Over the next 6 years, the set-aside grew to 1. Phase I is essentially a feasibility study in which award winners undertake a limited amount of research aimed at establishing an idea's scientific and commercial promise.
This phase normally does not involve SBIR funds, but is the stage at which grant recipients should be obtaining additional funds either from a procurement program at the agency that made the award, from private investors, or from the capital markets. The objective of this phase is to move the technology to the prototype stage and into the marketplace.
Phase III of the program is often fraught with difficulty for new firms. In practice, agencies have developed different approaches to facilitating this transition to commercial viability; not least among them are additional SBIR awards.
Previous NRC research showed that different firms have quite different objectives in applying to the program.
Some seek to demonstrate the potential of promising research. Others seek to fulfill agency research requirements on a cost-effective basis. Still others seek a certification of quality and the additional awards that can come from such recognition as they push science-based products toward commercialization.
With respect to Phase II, evaluation of a project's commercial potential was to consider, additionally, the existence of second-phase funding commitments from the private sector or other non-SBIR sources.
Evidence of third-phase follow-on commitments, along with other indicators of commercial potential, was also sought. Moreover, the reauthorization directed that a small business' record of commercialization be taken into account when considering the Phase II application.
It also called for an assessment by the National Research Council of the broader impacts of the program, including those on employment, health, national security, and national competitiveness. There have been some previous studies focusing on specific aspects or components of the program—notably by the General Accounting Office and the Small Business Administration.
The Committee convened government policy makers, academic researchers, and representatives of small business on February 28, for the first comprehensive discussion of the SBIR program's history and rationale, review existing research, and identify areas for further research and program improvements.
SBIR enjoyed strong support both within and outside the Beltway. At the same time, the size and significance of SBIR underscored the need for more research on how well it is working and how its operations might be optimized.
There should be additional clarification about the primary emphasis on commercialization within SBIR, and about how commercialization is defined. There should also be clarification on how to evaluate SBIR as a single program that is applied by different agencies in different ways.
This resulted in the largest and most thorough review of an SBIR program to date.Business and MBA research paper topics offer the opportunity for students to find the perfect topic for a research paper or capstone project. Below there are hundreds of topics to choose from ranging from accounting, management, international business, business law and many more.
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