Science Buddies has separate models for Scientific Method with a flowchart showing options for flexibility-of-timing when using "Steps of the Scientific Method" and for Engineering Design Process. And they explain how both models describe a flexible process even though each model-framework has steps. Above, Science Buddies has separate models for Science, and for Design. Below is one model that includes both together, with an integration of
Divergent and Convergent thinking skills are both important aspects of intelligence, problem solving and critical thinking.
Convergent Thinking Bringing facts and data together from various sources and then applying logic and knowledge to solve problems, achieve objectives or to make informed decisions is known as thinking convergently. The deductive logic that the fictional character Sherlock Homes used is a good example of convergent thinking.
Gathering various tidbits of facts and data he was able to put the pieces of a puzzle together and come up with a logical answer to the question: It is the ability to develop original and unique ideas and then come up with a problem solution or achieve an objective.
Einstein was a strong divergent thinker. He asked simple questions and then did mental exercises to solve problems. For example, as a young man Einstein asked himself what it would be like to ride on a beam of light.
It took him many years of thought experiments, however the answer helped him develop the special theory of relativity.
Thought experiments are imagined scenarios to understand the way things work. Pattern recognition, testing knowledge, logic thought flow and the ability to solve problems can all be tested and graded. However,there are no accurate tests able to measure divergent thinking skills.
How would one construct a test to determine divergent thinking capabilities?
Does public opinion decide what how much creativity was required for something, or is in the eye of the beholder? A more useful question is: How can divergent and convergent thinking be improved and utilized to strengthen your critical thinking skills?
Divergent and convergent thinking skills are both important to critical thinking. Not only that, they are interrelated.
Deductive reasoning looks inward to find a solution, while divergent reasoning looks outward for a solution. Following the facts and data to determine the answer to a problem is not significantly different than having a spark of a thought and then coming up with a solution.
Some of the same mental processes are used. Both require critical thinking skills to be effective. Both are used for solving problems, doing projects and achieving objectives.
In other words, Divergent and Convergent thinking skills are two sides to the same coin—of critical thinking. Both start with asking simple questions from a curious mind. Both can be strengthened by an insatiable curiosity and strong willingness to learn about the world and the people in it.
Here is an example: On October 14 th of Sputnik was launched by the Russians and the space race began. The United States was shocked when beaten by the Russians in technology.
In the early s John Kennedy sent letters to top people in the aerospace industry including Wernher von Braun. He asked how the US could beat the Russians in the space race. John Kennedy had done his homework by getting expert advice before giving his famous speech vowing to transport a man to the moon and bring him safely home by the end of the decade.Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI) organizes academic competitions in which students apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to hypothetical future situations.
The program looks at current technological, geopolitical, and societal trends and projects those trends 20–30 years into the future in order to train students to develop solutions to the challenges they.
Modern educators love to talk about "critical thinking skills," but not one in a hundred even knows what he means by this term.
The Critical Thinking Skills Hoax dives deep and explains why. Here are 3 practical reasons to implement training using INSIGHT Development Program.
Strong employee critical thinking skills and mindset are the basis for quality decision-making and problem-solving. Goal 1. The knowledge and skills that lead to success in college, the ability to usecritical thinking and analysis in all aspects of student life, and preparation for assuming the role of citizen leader working for the common good (one credit).
A3 Problem Solving: Applying Lean Thinking - Kindle edition by Jamie Flinchbaugh.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading A3 Problem Solving: Applying Lean Thinking. Problem-Solving Skills — Creative and Critical. An important goal of education is helping students learn how to think more productively while solving problems, by combining creative thinking (to generate ideas) and critical thinking (to evaluate ideas).
Both modes of thinking are essential for a well-rounded productive thinker, according to experts in both fields.