As one adds lemon juice the colour of tea liquor changes and this is specifically pronounced when added to black tea.
Open in a separate window Compared with those who did not consume iced black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of iced black tea and citrus peel were 0.
Discussion Arizona has one of the highest risks of skin SCC worldwide and tea beverages, as well as, citrus products are commonly consumed by Arizonans. In this population, two-thirds of all subjects reported black tea consumption in the previous year compared to about one third reporting citrus peel use.
Our H ci lemon tea showed that persons without skin cancer significantly consumed more citrus peel and hot black tea than did cases of skin SCC. We have previously demonstrated that among Arizonans [ 29 ], black tea beverages were prepared and consumed in various ways and that iced tea beverages were more likely to be prepared diluted.
Laboratory investigations support the capability of citrus peel or its major constituents, d-limonene, and also the ability of tea extract or its constituents, tea polyphenols to reduce not only the incidence and tumor size of chemically-induced tumors at several sites [ 48917182022 ] but also the growth of various tumor cells in culture [ 1133 ].
Both d-limonene, representative of citrus peel, and tea polyphenols, representative of black tea, are known to impact antiproliferative effects, including apoptosis, on neoplastic cells [ 434 - 37 ].
Dietary d-limonene has been shown to be effective in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. As a result, its cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I human clinical trials [ 3839 ]. Moreover, much research has been focused on the potential use of flavonoids in citrus and tea as inhibitors of neoplastic transformation [ 40 ] and as free radical scavengers to prevent oxidative skin damage [ 4142 ] Oxidative damage is one of the many mechanisms leading to skin cancer and other chronic diseases.
Black tea is a good source of antioxidants and addition of lemon to tea increases its antioxidant potential [ 43 ]. Our data indicates that among older Arizonans, citrus peel use and hot black tea intake were each independently associated with reduced risk of skin SCC. Among Arizonans, citrus peel was reported to be frequently consumed along with iced tea beverages at meals.
Some limitations and strengths of the study deserve consideration. In case-control studies, the possibilities for recall and interviewer bias are a major concern.
Differential recall of tea and citrus consumption between cases and controls can lead to biased estimates of effect. Furthermore, since there was a lag between diagnosis of the skin cancer and interview average of 4 monthsthere is potential for cases to have altered their behavior and to then report their recently changed behaviors.
Several steps were taken to reduce potential bias. Standard questionnaires were administered to all subjects by a trained interviewer who was not aware of the case-control status of the subjects at the time of the tea and citrus questionnaire administration. There is some evidence, however, that skin cancer cases did recently alter their behavior for risk factors they thought were related to skin cancer.
For instance, they reported similar recent past year exposure to the sun to the controls. The interview did not record information on sun exposure experiences in the more distant past; however, given that skin SCC is related to other measures of high UV exposure i.
However, while it appears that the cases did modify some of their behaviors, there is no evidence that they recently altered their consumption of tea or citrus products.
Also, since there have been no prior studies of skin cancer occurrence and tea or citrus consumption, it is unlikely that this population would have considered tea or citrus peel consumption, or lack of consumption, to be related to their risk of skin cancer.
Public perception of tea and citrus consumption has been that there would be no difference in the potential effect of tea or citrus based on different products. This study controlled for important confounding factors, including history of physician-diagnosed actinic keratosis, tanning ability, and number of current freckles on the arms.
Consumption of citrus peel along with black tea appeared to be generally protective. Significant independent inverse associations between citrus peel use and skin SCC were observed.Xing Beverages is a member brand of the New Age Beverages Corporation portfolio of healthy functional beverages, distributed directly .
Lemon leaves can be used as a garnish for desserts such as lemon cakes and they can also be used as a mold to make chocolate leaves. Lemon leaves pair well with fresh seafood, oysters, fresh anchovy fillets, pork, chicken, mint, parsley, basil, garlic, olive oil, vinegar, and chopped pistachios.
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Lemon tea is one form of green tea or black tea liquor blended with the right quantity of lemon juice just before serving. As one adds lemon juice the colour of tea liquor changes and this is specifically pronounced when added to black tea.
Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were (95% CI = – ) and (95% CI = – ), respectively. Aug 01, · Excellent for easy squeezing of tea bags or lemon slices after infusion.
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