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Practitioners or policymakers General public A combination of these categories is also common cases.
For instance, a literature review is a kind of research outcomes focus and its goal is also for integration to make generalization of a topic. To acquire more information about Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Review, you can read more in  and . Strategies for writing a literature review One of the most difficult things in writing a literature review of novice researchers is that they do not know where to start and how to do it in an efficient way.
To give some hints for the inexperienced researchers, this part describes briefly the process of conducting a literature review. Basically, there are 6 main steps mainly extracted from  in working on the literature. The process spreads from specifying type of the review to presenting the review.
Specifying type of the review A literature review can be one or a combination of several types described in previous part Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature review.
Positioning your type of the review will help you to orientate your process of conducting the review, especially in the next step - choosing review questions. Choosing review questions There is a distinction between review questions and empirical questions in a research . The review questions refer to those questions which will be answered during the literature review while the empirical questions will be experimented and answered during the primary research conducted by researcher.
At this stage, the review questions are concerned and formed. To form the review questions, two sub-steps are needed: Forming the questions and indicating filtering criteria .
Review questions are very essential and influence the whole process of the review. These questions are not only lightening your search but also directing you in evaluating, analyzing and interpreting collected data; It can be thought as compass for exploring "the forest" of knowledge and finding out your own path of the review.
As mentioned, the review types influence this forming step largely. For example, "From the previous literature, what is the effect of intervention X on outcomes Y and Z"  is a question focusing on the goal of integrating research outcomes.
In particular, a similar question can be "How can peer-communication influence to learning java programming in online manner? Filtering criteria for qualified data: While the review questions are useful to help the novice researchers to locate resources, filtering criteria are necessary and crucial in narrowing down or focusing on relevant resources.
These kind of criteria are called criteria for inclusion and exclusion . Indeed, these criteria should be considered as conditions for classifying collected resources e. The criteria are good enough if there is a similar classification result after giving the same set of resources to two persons classifying based on these criteria .A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.
A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a . A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.
In the presentation part, the purposes of the literature review, possible types of the review, process in writing the literature (e.g. strategies), and some tips are addressed to help a novice researcher to understand the role of the literature review in turn to write a good review for a specific research topic.
The literature review: an integral part of the research process. Ernest M, Burton H, Keenleside J. The importance of the review of literature, a component of any research study, has been relatively downgraded by occupational .
A good literature review should avoid the temptation of stressing the importance of a particular research program. The fact that a researcher is undertaking the research program speaks for its importance, and an educated reader may well be insulted that they are not allowed to judge the importance for themselves.
Research Questions for Literature Reviews Why a Literature Review? research will influence your choice of research question.
not of a literature review or research design, which require presentation of various points of view in order to add new insights.