Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Sudden death and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Clinical utility of genetic tests for inherited hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Physiology[ edit ] The diagram shows a healthy heart left and one suffering from ventricular hypertrophy right.

The ventricles are the chambers in the heart responsible for Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy blood either to the lungs right ventricle [3] or to the rest of the body left ventricle. Concentric hypertrophy results from various stressors to the Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy including hypertension, congenital heart defects such as Tetralogy of Fallotvalvular defects aortic coarction or stenosisand primary defects of the myocardium which directly cause hypertrophy hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

The underlying commonality in these disease states is an increase in pressures that the ventricles experience. For example, in tetralogy of Fallot, the right ventricle is exposed to the high pressures of the left heart due to a defect in the septum; as a result the right ventricle undergoes hypertrophy to compensate for these increased pressures.

Similarly, in systemic hypertension, the left ventricle must work harder to overcome the higher pressures of the vascular system and responds by thickening to deal with increased wall stress. Concentric hypertrophy is characterized by an addition of sarcomeres the contractile units of cardiac cells in parallel.

The result is an increase in thickness of the myocardium without a corresponding increase in ventricular size. This is maladaptive largely because there is not a corresponding proliferation of the vasculature suppling the myocardium, resulting in ischemic areas of the heart. Ultimately, this response can be compensatory for a duration, and allow for improved cardiac function in the face of stressors.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

However, this type of hypertrophy can result in a dilated ventricle which is unable to effectively pump blood, leading to heart failure. Eccentric hypertrophy is generally regarded as healthy, or physiologic hypertrophy and is often termed " athlete's heart.

It is a response to 'volume-overload', either as a result of increased blood return to the heart during exercise, or a response to an actual increase in absolute blood volume as in pregnancy. This increase in pumping ability is the result of the addition of sarcomeres in series, which enables the heart to contract with greater force.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Rowers, cyclists, and cross-country skiers tend to have the largest hearts, with an average left ventricular wall thickness of 1. Though eccentric hypertrophy is termed 'athlete's heart' it is typically only found in individuals who are aerobically conditioned. For example, weight lifters tend to undergo remodeling which more closely resembles concentric hypertrophy, as the heart does not experience a volume-overload, but instead responds to transient pressure overload as a consequence of increased vascular resistance from pressures exerted on arteries by sustained muscular contraction.

Though it is the case that eccentric hypertrophy is largely considered to be a healthy response to increased cardiac demand, it is also associated with risks. For example, in athlete's with significantly increased left ventricular weight there is also a corresponding increased risk for conduction abnormalities and sudden cardiac death.

Additionally, in pregnant individuals, a subpopulation progress to peripartum cardiomyopathycharacterized by a dilation of the left ventricle and a corresponding deficit in heart function. There are suggestions that this progression is partially determined by underlying metabolic derangement diabetes and hypertension which may result in a more maladaptive cardiac response to pregnancy.

As such, though it is convenient to consider clear cut distinctions between pathologic and physiologic cardiac hypertrophy, there may be a broader range of phenotypes than may be accounted for by gross cardiac phenotypes alone. The development of pathologic states in LVH is complex.

Electrical abnormalities are commonly found in individuals with LVH, both ventricular and super-ventricular tachycardia. Additionally, cytoarchitecture and the extracellular environment of the myocardium are altered, specifically genes typically expressed in the fetal heart are induced, as are collagen and other fibrotic proteins.

LVH may interfere with heart functionality in a number of ways. Before progression to a dilated phenotype, mechanical obstruction of the outflow tract can occur, leading to reduced cardiac output. Additionally, increased fibrosis of the ventricle can result in a failure to relax appropriately which impairs cardiac filling and may lead to diastolic dysfunction or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Diagnosis[ edit ] Signs and symptoms[ edit ] In individuals with eccentric hypertrophy there may be little or no indication that hypertrophy has occurred as it is generally a healthy response to increased demands on the heart.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Wikipedia

Conversely, concentric hypertrophy can make itself known in a variety of ways.travels the body). When it does, it is referred to as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).

HOCM is a relatively common finding in young people who experience sudden cardiac arrest. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the chronic long-term abuse of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) leads to heart failure. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a type of dilated monstermanfilm.com to the direct toxic effects of alcohol on heart muscle, the heart is unable to .

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause. This results in the heart being less able to pump blood effectively.

Ventricular and Atrial Hypertrophy

Symptoms vary from none to feeling tired, leg swelling, and shortness of breath. It may also result in chest pain or fainting. Complications include heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, and sudden. The goal of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent sudden cardiac death in people at high risk.

Specific treatment varies depending on the severity of your symptoms. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes thick.

Often, only 1 part of the heart is thicker than the other parts.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause. This results in the heart being less able to pump blood effectively.

Symptoms vary from none to feeling tired, leg swelling, and shortness of breath. It may also result in chest pain or fainting. Complications include heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, and sudden.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic