When available, academic and peer-reviewed publications, scholarly monographs, and textbooks are usually the most reliable sources.
Purpose of the data The main purpose of the data on military expenditure is to provide an easily identifiable measure of the scale of resources absorbed by the military. Military expenditure is an input measure which is not directly related to the 'output' of military activities, such as military capability or military security.
Long-term trends in military expenditure and sudden changes in trends may be signs of a change in military output, but such interpretations should be made with caution. Military expenditure data measured in constant dollars is a trend indicator of the volume of resources used for military activities, which allow comparisons to be made over time for individual countries and between countries.
The share of gross domestic product GDP is a rough indicator of the proportion of national resources used for military activities, and therefore of the economic burden imposed on the national economy. Sources The sources for military expenditure data are, in order of priority: The first category consists of national budget documents, defence white papers and public finance statistics published by ministries of finance and ministries of defence, central banks and national statistical offices.
This category also includes the publications of other organizations that provide proper references to the primary sources used.
The third category of sources consists of specialist journals and newspapers. Secondary sources of data represent a much higher proportion of data for earlier years, in particular the pre data that has now been published as a result of the recent data extension project.
In more recent years, a lot more primary data from national authorities has become available. Definition of military expenditure Although the lack of sufficiently detailed data makes it difficult to apply a common definition of military expenditure on a worldwide basis, SIPRI has adopted a definition as a guideline.
This should include expenditure on: Civil defence and current expenditures on previous military activities, such as veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion and weapon destruction are excluded. In practice it is not possible to apply this definition for all countries, and in many cases SIPRI is confined to using the national data provided.
Priority is then given to the choice of a uniform definition over time for each country in order to achieve consistency over time, rather than to adjusting the figures for single years according to a common definition.
In the light of these difficulties, military expenditure data is most appropriately used for comparisons over time, and may be less suitable for close comparison between individual countries.
Reference should always be made, when comparing data for different countries, to the footnotes and special notes attached to the data for these countries, which indicate deviations from the SIPRI definition, where these are known.
As a general rule, SIPRI takes national data to be accurate until there is convincing information to the contrary. Estimates are made primarily when the coverage of official data does not correspond to the SIPRI definition or when there are no consistent time series available that cover the entire period covered by the data.
In the first case, estimates are made on the basis of an analysis of official government budget and expenditure accounts. Other countries where the entire series is estimated are Israel and the United Arab Emirates.
In the second case, differing sources, covering overlapping time periods, are linked together to produce a longer series. In selecting the primary source, preference is given to: However, in many cases it is only possible to achieve two out of three of these criteria.
The use of these types of estimates has been particularly necessary for the older, pre data produced in the recent data extension exercise. This is because the sources of data used for more recent years, often primary sources, are not available for earlier periods, and have had to be combined with other, often secondary sources, which frequently follow a different definition of military spending.
In order not to introduce assumptions into the military expenditure statistics, estimates are always based on empirical evidence and never based on assumptions or extrapolations. Thus, no estimates are made for countries that do not release any official data.
These countries are displayed without figures. SIPRI stimates are presented in blue text in the tables. Red text is used when data is uncertain for other reasons, such as the reliability of the source or because of the economic context.
Figures are more unreliable when inflation is rapid and unpredictable. Supplementary allocations made during the course of the year to cover losses in purchasing power often go unreported and recent military expenditure can appear to be falling in real terms when it is in fact increasing.
Data for the most recent years include two types of estimate which apply to all countries: Unless exceptional uncertainty is involved with these estimates, they are not marked in red text.Secondary research uses outside information assembled by government agencies, industry and trade associations, labor unions, media .
Sources of Secondary Data. You can break the sources of secondary data into internal sources and external sources. Internal sources include data that exists and is stored inside your organization.
The Sophists (Ancient Greek) The sophists were itinerant professional teachers and intellectuals who frequented Athens and other Greek cities in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E.
Internal Data sources for secondary market research This data source lies within the organization. For example – sales invoices, receipts, debtors etc are all sources of internal information. Whenever possible, marketing researchers ought to use multiple sources of secondary data.
In this way, these different sources can be cross-checked as confirmation of one another. The term "published" is most commonly associated with text materials, either in traditional printed format or monstermanfilm.comr, audio, video, and multimedia materials that have been recorded then broadcast, distributed, or archived by a reputable party may also meet the necessary criteria to be considered reliable sources.