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Definition[ edit ] Lajoie and Shapiro  reviewed forty definitions of transpersonal psychology that had appeared in academic literature over the period from to They found that five key themes in particular featured prominently in these definitions: Based upon this study Short term pastoral counseling final authors proposed the following definition of transpersonal psychology: Transpersonal Psychology is concerned with the study of humanity's highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness.
In a review of previous definitions Walsh and Vaughan  suggested that transpersonal psychology is an area of psychology that focuses on the study of transpersonal experiences and related phenomena. These phenomena include the causes, effects and correlates of transpersonal experiences and development, as well as the disciplines and practices inspired by them.
They have also criticised many definitions of transpersonal psychology for carrying implicit assumptions, or presuppositions, that may not necessarily define the field as a whole. Note a Hartelius, Caplan and Rardin  conducted a retrospective analysis of definitions of transpersonal psychology.
They found three dominant themes that define the field: Analysis suggested that the field has moved from an early emphasis on alternative states of consciousness to a more expanded view of human wholeness and transformation. This development has, according to the authors, moved the field closer to the integral approaches of Ken Wilber and Post-Aurobindonian theorists.
Although transpersonal psychology is relatively new as a formal discipline, beginning with the publication of The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology in and the founding of the Association for Transpersonal Psychology init draws upon ancient mystical knowledge that comes from multiple traditions.
Transpersonal psychologists attempt to integrate timeless wisdom with modern Western psychology and translate spiritual principles into scientifically grounded, contemporary language. The meaning then, different from today's usage, was in the context of James' radical empiricismin which there exists an intimate relation between a perceiving subject and a perceived object, recognizing that all objects are dependent on being perceived by someone.
Another important figure in the establishment of transpersonal psychology was Abraham Maslowwho had already published work regarding human peak experiences.
Maslow is credited for having presented the outline of a fourth-force psychology, named transhumanistic psychology, in a lecture entitled "The Farther Reaches of Human Nature" in Early use of the term "transpersonal" can also be credited to Stanislav Grof and Anthony Sutich.
At this time, in —68, Maslow was also in close dialogue with Grof and Sutich regarding the name and orientation of the new field.
Both humanistic and transpersonal psychology have been associated with the Human Potential Movement. A growth center for alternative therapies and philosophies that grew out of the counter-culture of the s at places like EsalenCalifornia.
The Association for Transpersonal Psychology was established in Mainly in the form of a synthesis of diverse disciplines. Another important contributor to the field, Michael Washburn, was drawing on the insights of Jungian depth psychology. The s were also characterized by the work of Stanislav and Christina Grof, and their concept of spiritual emergence and spiritual emergencies.
In the early s a group within APA division 32 Humanistic Psychology argued in favor of establishing transpersonal psychology as a separate division within the framework of the American Psychological Association.
A petition was presented to the APA Council inbut was turned down. A new initiative was made inbut it failed to win the majority of votes in the council. In the petition was presented for a third and final time, but was withdrawn by the executive board of Division Turner and Francis Lu.
Cortright  and Sovatsky  made contributions to transpersonal psychotherapy. Both authors published their primary work as part of the SUNY-series.
Note b Lukoff, Turner and Lu, writers in the clinical field, were the authors behind the proposal for a new diagnostic category to be included in the DSM-manual of the American Psychiatric Association.
The category was called "Psychoreligious or psychospiritual problem" and was approved by the Task Force on DSM-IV inafter changing its name to Religious or spiritual problem. In he formed Integral Institute. In the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology announced that it was changing its name to Sofia University.
A change that included a new profile in the academic landscape, with an expanded graduate program. Among these schools we find the Analytical psychology of Carl Jung   the psychosynthesis of Roberto Assagioli  and the humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow.
Barry established transpersonal psychology as a valid action research method in the field of education through his Ph. Other transpersonal disciplines, such as transpersonal anthropology and transpersonal business studiesare listed in transpersonal disciplines.
Transpersonal art is one of the disciplines considered by Boucovolas,  in listing how transpersonal psychology may relate to other areas of transpersonal study.
In writing about transpersonal art, Boucovolas begins by noting how, according to Breccia and also to the definitions employed by the International Transpersonal Association intranspersonal art may be understood as art work which draws upon important themes beyond the individual self, such as the transpersonal consciousness.
This makes transpersonal art criticism germane to mystical approaches to creativity. Transpersonal art criticism, as Boucovolas notes, can be considered that which claims conventional art criticism has been too committed to stressing rational dimensions of art and has subsequently said little on art's spiritual dimensions, or as that which holds art work has a meaning beyond the individual person.
Certain aspects of the psychology of Carl Jungas well as movements such as music therapy and art therapymay also relate to the field. Boucovolas' paper cites Breccia as an early example of transpersonal art, and claims that at the time his article appeared, integral theorist Ken Wilber had made recent contributions to the field.Help Bring Healing to Your Community with the Online Graduate Certificate in Pastoral Counseling.
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