More of centralized and formal organization structure Less promotional opportunities Lack of employees participation in decision-making Excessive control over the employees by the managers Individual factors- There are various expectations which the family members, peer, superior and subordinates have from the employee. Other individual factors causing stress among employees are inherent personality traits such as being impatient, aggressive, rigid, feeling time pressure always, etc. Similarly, the family issues, personal financial problems, sudden career changes all lead to stress. Job concerning factors- Certain factors related to job which cause stress among employees are as follows- Monotonous nature of job Unsafe and unhealthy working conditions Lack of confidentiality Crowding Extra-organizational factors- There are certain issues outside the organization which lead to stress among employees.
Goals Goals are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, in order to achieve some larger, overall result preferred from the system, for example, the mission of an organization. Going back to our reference to systems, goals are outputs from the system.
Strategies or Activities These are the methods or processes required in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals.
Going back to our reference to systems, strategies are processes in the system. Objectives Objectives are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals in the plan.
Objectives are usually "milestones" along the way when implementing the strategies.
Tasks Particularly in small organizations, people are assigned various tasks required to implement the plan. If the scope of the plan is very small, tasks and activities are often essentially the same. Resources and Budgets Resources include the people, materials, technologies, money, etc.
The costs of these resources are often depicted in the form of a budget. Going back to our reference to systems, resources are input to the system. Basic Overview of Typical Phases in Planning Whether the system is an organization, department, business, project, etc.
The phases are carried out carefully or -- in some cases -- intuitively, for example, when planning a very small, straightforward effort.
The complexity of the various phases and their duplication throughout the system depend on the scope of the system. For example, in a large corporation, the following phases would be carried out in the corporate offices, in each division, in each department, in each group, etc.
Different groups of planners might have different names for the following activities and groups them differently. However, the nature of the activities and their general sequence remains the same. The following are typical phases in planning. They do not comprise the complete, ideal planning process.
Reference Overall Singular Purpose "Mission" or Desired Result from System During planning, planners have in mind consciously or unconsciously some overall purpose or result that the plan is to achieve. Take Stock Outside and Inside the System This "taking stock" is always done to some extent, whether consciously or unconsciously.
This scan usually involves considering various driving forces, or major influences, that might effect the organization.
During this analysis, planners also can use a variety of assessments, or methods to "measure" the health of systems. Establish Goals Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of the system, planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities, while building up weaknesses and warding off threats.
Establish Strategies to Reach Goals The particular strategies or methods to reach the goals chosen depend on matters of affordability, practicality and efficiency. Establish Objectives Along the Way to Achieving Goals Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.
Associate Responsibilities and Time Lines With Each Objective Responsibilities are assigned, including for implementation of the plan, and for achieving various goals and objectives. Ideally, deadlines are set for meeting each responsibility.
Write and Communicate a Plan Document The above information is organized and written in a document which is distributed around the system.
Acknowledge and Celebrate Accomplishment of the Plan This step is frequently forgotten, which can lead to increasing frustration and skepticism on the part of those people who are responsible to carry out the plan.
Guidelines to Ensure Successful Planning and Implementation A common failure in many kinds of planning is that the plan is never really implemented.
Instead, all focus is on writing a plan document.
Too often, the plan sits collecting dust on a shelf. Therefore, most of the following guidelines help to ensure that the planning process is carried out completely and is implemented completely -- or, deviations from the intended plan are recognized and managed accordingly.
This is true no matter what type of system. When planning, get input from everyone who will responsible to carry out parts of the plan, along with representative from groups who will be effected by the plan.
Of course, people also should be involved if they will be responsible to review and authorize the plan.The Problem. By emphasizing individual accountability for past results, traditional appraisals give short shrift to improving current performance and . The Problem.
In the past few decades, organizations have emphasized “competencies” in hiring and developing talent. Jobs have been decomposed into skills and filled by candidates who have them.
Performance management is the systematic process by which an agency involves its employees, as individuals and members of a group, in improving organizational effectiveness in the accomplishment of agency mission and goals.
Start studying Human Resource Final. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. From the perspective of the managers in this study ineffective managerial appraisals are those that fail to focus on the issue of management development and performance improvement.
When management reviews fail to give adequate attention to this issue the manager being . Human Resource Management Questions and Answers - Discover the monstermanfilm.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on Human Resource.